The Journey of Wynn 574

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Construsul Dedetizadora

The agroecological movement in Brazil started with critiques of the impacts of agricultural systems based on the Green Revolution. The large number of adventurers coming to the Minas Gerais led to the foundation of several settlements, the first of which was created in 1711: Vila Rica de Ouro dedetizadora porto alegre Preto , Sabará and Mariana , followed by São João del Rei (1713), Serro, Caeté (1714), Pitangui (1715) and São José do Rio das Mortes (1717, now Tiradentes ). In contrast to other regions of colonial Brazil, people coming to Minas Gerais settled mostly in villages instead of the countryside.
The vine and longtailed mealybugs are common species in Californian vineyards 10 Pseudococcus longispinus is also found in vineyards in Chile 22 and New Zealand 36 , while Pl. ficus is the main species on vines in other grape production regions 10 , 37 , 38 However, neither of these species had been recorded causing damages in vineyards in Rio Grande do Sul before 16 , 18 In previous studies, Planococcus citri was considered as the most economically important species in vineyards in southern Brazil 39 , however, molecular studies have not detected this species in vineyards in Rio Grande do Sul after 2010 18 , as confirmed in this work.

Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) was originally isolated from larvae collected in Chihuahua, Mexico 60 , 61 Since its description and development as a bioinsecticide, it has provided an effective alternative for the control of the codling moth in integrated and organic pome fruit and walnut production in several countries 62 , 63 In Argentina, the first field trials were conducted during the early 1980s, in pear and apple orchards in the province of Mendoza (western Argentina).
Species that were collected in small numbers per plant and were restricted to only 1 municipality or micro-region of São Paulo were: Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) (Coccidae), Melanaspis smilacis (Comstock) (Diaspididae), and L. minutus (Pseudococcidae) ( Fig.

1According Rodrigues et al. (2003); 2Use of monitoring of G. molesta and A. fraterculus for spraying of insecticides per year; 3Presence of mating disruption for minimum four months; 4Use phytoseiids mites for biological control; 5Frequency of insecticides per year; 6Number of chemical groups of insecticides; 7Number of G. molesta on the 10th day after spraying with insecticides.
Curtis, J. (1833) British Entomology, being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of Insects found in Great Britain and Ireland; containing Coloured Figures from Nature of the most rare and beautiful Species, and in many Instances of the Plants upon which they are found.
This variation highlights the importance of periodic surveys of species occurring in a particular region, and may explain the variations in scale insects' frequency discussed herein, including the absence of species previously recorded from the state of São Paulo.

Some of the main damage symptoms caused by scale insects on citrus trees observed during this study were: (1) chlorosis on the leaves, caused mainly by species of diaspidids; (2) dieback of twigs and branches on plants infested by U. citri and L. rugosa; (3) early fruit drop in fruits infested by P. cinerea, in the calyx region; (4) sooty mold fungi on leaves infested mainly by P. praelonga and by species of coccids and pseudococcids, due to the large amount of honeydew eliminated by these species.
The Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul ranks fifth in the incidence rate (4.7 cases per 10,000 population) and presents around 15% of the total number of cases in the country 31 In a previous study conducted to identify high transmission areas and possible ecological components of leptospirosis transmission in Rio Grande do Sul, the highest incidence rates were found in the coastal sedimentary areas with low altitude and predominantly agricultural land use in the central valley 32 The state economy is based on agribusiness, including cattle and rice paddies, with an associated increased risk of leptospirosis in some areas that needs to be evaluated.

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